Dr. Lorraine Lin

  • Designer

  • Developer

  • Researcher

Case Studies

Virtual Reality Experiences


I worked with a team to create a toy blocks puzzle room and a larger escape game viewed through a virtual reality headset, interactible through motion capture gloves or controllers. My role was designing and building the narrative, puzzles, and environment in Unity as well as conducting studies with these virtual experiences. The data I collected contributes to new information on the virtual hand illusion (the phenomena of participants taking on virtual hands as a part of themselves) as well as the efficiency and likeability of various avatar appearances.

Below is a link to a more detailed synopsis:



VEnvI is an educational curriculum that engages middle school students in computer programming through dance. Users of the first VEnvI iteration asked for a wider range of character customization and a more relatable character appearance, as opposed to the existing two adult models with limited appearance changing options. I worked with Project Leads to build a character customization menu and new characters in Unity. I also led participants through the VEnVI curriculum lessons and evaluated user feedback in a study.

Below is a link to a more detailed synopsis:

Need a Hand


How does your avatar’s appearance affect your perception of your virtual body? To investigate the effects of different realisms, render styles, and sensitivities to pain on the virtual hand illusion, I developed and ran a study on a virtual environment with controllable different hand models operated with the leap motion controller. Users controlled 6 different virtual hands: 3 human hands with differing levels of realism, a robot and zombie hand for differing levels of sensitivity to pain, and a control wooden block hand.

Below is a link to a more detailed synopsis:

Virtual Pediatric Patient System


I overhauled the first iteration of the Virtual Pediatric Patient System (VPPS) at Clemson University. The VPPS is a student nurse training program that Clemson students built in the previous summer. The first iteration consists of a scenario on a 2D screen: a mother and a child in a pediatric room are visible on the screen. Student nurses can interact with the digital characters using a microphone and headset. The simulation did not appear realistic enough to all of the faculty nurses in the first usability study.

I replaced the system’s pediatric room, assembled new character models, and animated more realistic movements for the characters. Following is the documentation for my additions:

My full experience can be viewed here: Lorraine’s DREU of 2011


Journals and Proceedings

  • Lin, L., Normoyle, A., Adkins, A., Sun, Y., Robb, A., Ye, Y., Di Luca, M., and Jörg, S. The Effect of Hand Size and Interaction Modality on the Virtual Hand Illusion. In 2019 IEEE Virtual Reality Conference.

  • Schwind, V., Lin, L., Di Luca, M., Jörg, S, and Hillis, J. Touch with Foreign Hands: The Effect of Virtual Hand Appearance on Visual-Haptic Integration. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Perception (SAP ’18), pp. 1-8.

  • Lin, L., Parmar, D., Babu, S. V., Leonard, A. E., Daily, S. B., and Jörg, S. How character customization affects learning in computational thinking. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Perception (SAP ’17). Article 1, 8 pages.

  • Parmar, D., Babu, S. V., Lin, L., Jörg, S., D’Souza, N., Leonard, A. E., and Daily, S. B. Can embodied interaction and virtual peer customization in a virtual programming environment enhance computational thinking? In Proceedings of the 2016 Research on Equity and Sustained Participation in Engineering, Computing, and Technology (RESPECT), pp. 1-2.

  • Lin, L. and Jörg, S. Need a Hand? How Appearance Affects the Virtual Hand Illusion. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Perception (SAP ’16 ). pp. 69-76.

  • Herro, D., Lin, L., and Fowler, M. Meet the (media) producers: Artists, composers and gamemakers. In the Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education 9, 1, pp. 40-53.

  • Gurjot, S., J. E. Swan II, J. A. Jones, L. Lin, and S. R. Ellis. 2009. Depth Judgment Measures and Occluders in Near-Field Augmented Reality. In Poster Compendium, Proceedings of Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization (APGV 2009), pp. 127.


  • Herro, D., Boyer, D.M. and Lin., L. (February, 2013). Play spaces in a school of education: A participatory approach. US Coalition on Play, Conference on the Value of Play: Taking Action. Clemson University, February 17-19, 2013.


  • Lin, L. and Jörg, S. The Effect of Realism on the Virtual Hand Illusion. Poster presented at: IEEE VR; 2016; Greenville, SC.

  • Lin, L. and Jörg, S. Do Cartoons Feel Pain? Using the Virtual Hand Illusion to Test Human Response to Degrees of Realism. Poster presented at: ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Applied Perception; 2015; Tübingen, Germany.